Examples Of Organic Compounds-crycry

The compounds of carbon are known as organic compounds. Apart from carbon, most of the organic compounds contain hydrogen, oxygen and other elements. So, most of the organic compounds are also known as hydrocarbons. The two characteristic properties of carbon element which lead to the formation of very large number of organic compounds are; Valency of carbon is 4. Carbon atoms can link with one another by means of covalent bonds to form long chains or rings of carbon atoms Types of organic compound: Hydrocarbons Haloalkanes Alcohols Aldehydes Ketones Carboxylic acids nomenclature of carbon compounds : Nomenclature implies assigning a proper name to a particular organic compound on the basis of certain standard rules so that the study of these compounds may become systematic. In case of aliphatic compounds two systems of naming are generally used Trivial system IUPAC system nomenclature of carbon compounds : Trivial system In earlier days organic compounds were named after the source from which they were obtained. For example urea got its name because the substance was obtained form the urine of mammals. These names are without any systematic basis and are known as common names or trivial names. nomenclature of carbon compounds : IUPAC system It is the system for naming organic compound given by international union of pure and applied chemistry. This system is very useful in the study of organic compounds. In IUPAC system of nomenclature, the name of organic compound consists of three parts: nomenclature of carbon compounds : Word Root The word root denotes the number of carbon atoms present in the chain. For chains containing upto four carbon atoms, special word roots (meth-C1, eth-C2, prop-C3, but-C4) have been used while those containing more than four carbon atoms, Greek numerals have been used to represent the word root. For Example The word root is linked to the suffix which may be primary or secondary or both Primary suffix: It indicates the nature of linkage in the carbon atoms. For example if the carbon atom is linked by single covalent bond (C-C), the primary suffix ""ane is used. Similarly for a double bond between two carbon atoms (C=C), ene is used, the suffix ""yne is used for triple bond between two carbon atoms ( C?C). Secondary suffix: It indicates the presence of functional group present in the organic compound. A few important secondary suffixes are listed below structural formula: Distinguishing of the different carbon atom groups by the structural characteristics is the main feature discussed when structural formulae are considered. The different groups of the carbon atom that are defined based on their structural characteristics are primary carbon, secondary carbon, tertiary carbon and quaternary carbon. Based on the constitution of the molecule, structural differences are seen occurring within the four groups. Primary carbon atom: If an atom of carbon that is attached to a functional group and is directly attached to not more than one carbon atom is a primary carbon or 1o carbon atom. primary c-atom Secondary carbon atom: If an atom of carbon that is attached to a functional group and is directly attached to two carbon atoms is a secondary carbon or 2o carbon atom. secondry c-atom Tertiary carbon atom: If an atom of carbon that is attached to a functional group and is directly attached to three carbon atoms is a tertiary carbon or 3o carbon atom. tertiary c-atom Quaternary carbon atom: If an atom of carbon that is attached to a functional group and is directly attached to four carbon atoms is a quaternary carbon or 4o carbon atom. carbon structure Understanding and consideration of molecular symmetry is used to distinguish atoms and groups that are structurally equivalent and non-equivalent. Since in most of the cases of organic compounds, due to the existence of many compounds having same molecular formula called isomers, molecular formula may not represent the compound distinctively and hence structural formulas are used. The exceptional versatility of carbon to form strong bonds to itself and formation of strong bonds to other elements is reflected by the organic isomers that are prevalent. Examples of types of organic compound -I Hydrocarbons: Most important natural source of hydrocarbon is petroleum. There are two types of hydrocarbons: Saturated hydrocarbons: Alkanes:An alkane is a hydrocarbon in which the carbon atoms are connected by only single covalent bond. Examples of alkanes are Methane (CH4), Ethane ( C2H6), Propane (C4H10) Unsaturated hydrocarbons: Alkenes:Alkenes are hydrocarbons in which the two carbon atoms are connected by a doube bond. Examples of alkenes are Ethene (C2H4), Propene (C3H6), Butene (C4H8) Alkynes:Alkynes are hydrocarbons in which the two carbon atoms are connected by a triple bond. Examples of alkynes are Ethyne (C2H2), Propyne (C3H4), Butyne (C4H6) Cyclic hydrocarbons : In these hydrocarbons, the carbon atoms are arranged in the form of a ring. Examples: Cyclohexane (C6H12), Cycloprapane (C3H6) Haloalkanes:A haloalkane is formed when one hydrogen atom of an alkane is replace by a halogen atom. For example, when one hydrogen in methane is replaced by a chlorine atom, we get chloromethane CH4 – replace on hydrogen to chlorine – CH3Cl Examples of haloalkanes: Chloroethane (C2H5Cl), Chloropropane (C3H7Cl) Examples of types of organic compound -II Alcohols: Alcohols are the organic compound containing an hydroxyl group ( -OH group) attached to a carbon atom. Examples of organic compound containing alcohol group: Methyl alcohol (CH3OH), Ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH) Aldehydes:Aldehydes are the organic compound containing an aldehyde group ( -CHO group) attached to a carbon atom. Examples of organic compound containing aldehyde group: Formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) Ketones: Ketones are the organic compound containing an ketone group ( -CO group) attached to a carbon atom. Examples of organic compound containing ketone group: Propanone (CH3COCH3), Butanone (CH3COCH2CH3) Carboxylic acids: Carboxylic acids are the organic compound containing an carboxylic acid group ( -COOH group) attached to a carbon atom Examples of organic compound containing carboxylic acid group: Methanoic acid (HCOOH), Ethanoic acid (CH3COOH) Uses of Organic compounds: Some important uses of organic compounds are as follows: Organic compounds are used in PCB (Printed Circuit Boards) Glass fibre (Epoxy) is a perfect example of organic compound, mainly used in lamination. Nowadays organic compounds are used in plastic discotic liquid-crystal for transferring the electric charges. Organic compounds are used in various life processes. Organic compounds are used in the manufacturing of tubes (drainage), Rubber hoses, plastic bottles, These compounds are also used in various cooking utensils. Organic compounds are also used in surgical compounds. 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