Mobile-Cell-Phone In cellular wireless networks, it is very important to deal with Mobile station (MS) handoff between cells so that they can maintain a continuous and QoS-guaranteed service. There are four basic types of handoff protocols; network-controlled handoff (NCHO), mobile-assisted handoff (MAHO), soft handoff (SHO), and mobile-controlled handoff (MCHO). From NCHO to MCHO, the control protocols tend to decentralize the decision making process, which help shorten handoff delays; however, the decentralization makes the measurement information available to make a handoff decision also decreased. Next, we briefly introduce these four types of handoff mechanisms. Network-controlled handoff NCHO is a centralized handoff protocol, in which it is network that makes handoff decision based on measurements of the signal quality of mobile station (MS) at a number of based stations (BS). Specifically, if the MS is measured to have a weaker signal in its old cell, while a stronger signal in a neighbouring cell, then a handoff decision could be made by the network to switch MS from the old cell to the new cell. Such a type of handoff in general takes 100-200 ms and produces a noticeable interruption in the conversation. Overall delay of such a type of handoff is in general in the range of 5-10 s. Thus, this type of handoff is not suitable to a rapid changing environment and a high density of users due to the associated delay. NCHO is used in the first-generation analogue systems such as AMPS. Mobile-assisted handoff MAHO distributes the handoff decision process. It is MS makes measurements, and the Mobile switch centre (MSC) makes decisions on handoff. Compared to NCHO, this mechanism has more distributed control, thereby helping to improve the overall handoff delay, typically in the range of 1 s. Soft handoff SHO is often used in conjunction with MAHO. Rather than immediately terminating the connection between a MS and a BS. In the course of handoff, a new connection is established first between the MS and a new BS, while keeping the old connection between the MS and the old station. Only after the new connection can stably transmit data, the old connection is released. Thus, SHO is a make before break mechanism. This mechanism helps ensure the service continuity, which is however at the cost of more capacity resource consumption during the handoff (as two connections are established simultaneously). Mobile-controlled handoff In contrast to NCHO, it is MS that totally control and make decisions on handoff in the MCHO approach. A MS keeps on measuring signal strength from all the surround base station (BS)s. If the MS find that there is a new BS who has a stronger signal than that of an old BS, it may consider to handoff from the old BS to the new BS given a certain signal threshold is reached. MCHO is the highest degree of handoff decentralization, thereby enabling it to have a very fast handoff speed, typically on the order of 0.1 s. Summary We have introduced four types of handoff mechanisms that are widely used in cellular wireless networks. From centralization to decentralization, network-controlled handoff (NCHO) shows the highest centralization with the network totally controlling and making decisions on handoff, while mobile-controlled handoff (MCHO) gives full flexibility to MS to allow it to make decisions on handoff. As a result, decentralized handoff mechanisms show advantages of very fast handoff speed, while centralized mechanisms generally take much longer time. In modern cellular wireless networks, decentralized handoff mechanisms are widely applied due to their good scalability and fast handoff speeds. This article was contributed by Wireless Technology: http://www.ylesstech.com
Manufacturing is officially defined as the change of any material in a way that adds to value. Manufacturing engineers are in charge of researching, developing and making anything associated to the production of goods. Manufactured goods are all over building structures, surgical tools, automotive parts, household items, toys, clothing, cans and bottles. Almostproduct that is used today by current society is manufactured. This engineering field became popular in the late 20th century when developed nations increased their production with numerous new factories. This lead to the introduction of quality control mechanisms to increase productivity, reduce costs and maintain production quality. Manufacturing engineers are responsible for the design, direction and coordination and implementation of scientific principles to the manufacturing processes that provide the goods we need. They are the means organizations use to when they need to enhance existing products and create new products at lower costs or develop products that are environmentally safe. Education and Training: Manufacturing engineers usually hold a 4 to 5 year first degree with major in manufacturing engineering. The degrees can be: Bachelor of Engineering (BE), Bachelor of Science (BS), Bachelor of Technology (B. TECH) or Bachelor of Applied Science (BA) in manufacturing. Masters degree and doctorate programs are also obtainable for Master of Engineering (ME) in Manufacturing, master of science (M.Sc) in manufacturing management, master of science (M.Sc) in industrial and production management, masters of science (M.Sc) as well as masters of engineering (ME) in design, which is a sub-discipline of manufacturing are available. The graduate degree programs include curriculum normally includes units covering physics, mathematics, computer science, project management and specific topics in mechanical and manufacturing engineering. Students can later select a specialty. To attain a degree in Manufacturing engineering students must take courses in the following areas: Statics and dynamics Material strength and solid mechanics Instrumentation and measurement Thermodynamics, heat transfer, energy conversion Fluid mechanics and fluid dynamics Mechanism design (including kinematics and dynamics) Manufacturing technology or processes Hydraulics and pneumatics Mathematics – calculus, differential equations, and linear algebra. Engineering design Mechatronics and control theory Material Engineering Mechanical engineer job description: Manufacturing engineers will work in various industries, in numerous roles and need a wide range of skills, their dities may include: Designing new systems and processes for the introduction of new products or develop the ones in existence. Development and implementation of the quality management systems. Make sure that quality objectives are well-known and managed. Conducting management reviews of personnel and processes. Good communication skills and outgoing personality. Motivator and leader of people. The average pay for a mechanical engineer ranges from $56,000 to $70,000 for an Associate Manufacturing Engineer up to a Senior Manufacturing Engineer which ranges from $71,000 to 95,000 per year.
Mobile-Cell-Phone Though this article deals with the recent tablets launched by Blackberry and Samsung, but lets be honest. The credit for revolutionising the tablet market goes to only one company and that is Apple. The launch of Apple iPad changed the whole dynamics of tablet industry. Since then, other companies have more or less played the catch up game. But we must say, that with the launch of Blackberry Playbook and Samsung Galaxy Tab 10.1, the competition for iPad 2 has increased manifold. Both Blackberry and Samsung tablets are state-of-the-art devices that come with a long list of features. Both the devices were launched in April this year. So which of the two is better equipped to challenge the dominance of Apple in the tablet market? Lets take a comparative look on the two devices. 1) If we compare them on dimensions, Blackberrys tablet, with 7 inch screen size is smaller and thicker. Samsungs device has a bigger screen that measures 10.1 inch and also it is thinner. In terms of weight, its the Blackberry that is lighter, which is understandable as it is a smaller device compared to the Samsungs tablet. 2) In terms of display, both the devices are good. However, its the Samsungs tablet that has an upper hand as it not only provides the higher pixel resolution but also has the bigger screen that makes the video watching experience a good one. 3) When it comes to the storage, once again there is not much to choose between the two. Both the device are available in 16 GB, 32 GB and 64 GB versions. However, Samsung device has an additional 32 GB card slot that the Blackberry lacks. Both the devices have 1GB RAM. 4) Coming to the processor, both the devices have dual-core processor that ensures the devices remain fast and works well. 5) The Blackberry tablet runs on RIMs Blackberry OS that it has designed for its tablet, while the Samsung device runs on Android 3.0 Honeycomb OS developed by Google. Both the OS works well and its difficult to choose one over the other. 6) Talking of the camera, its the Blackberry with its 5 mega pixel camera, that clearly is ahead of Samsung which has 3.15 mega pixel camera. Blackberry has a secondary camera of 3mp that once again beats the 2mp camera of Samsung. About the Author:
Advertising With media facades becoming more and more popular in big cities, large LED Digital signage has firmly entrenched itself as landmark of the city skyline. Indoor Digital Screens Mobile LED screens are witnessing growing usages in the advertisement world and generating more attention in comparison to fixed screens. However, modular indoor screens based on dot matrix or SMD technology provide better picture quality than mobile screens. Moreover, there is no need for waterproofing as they are not subject to natures adversity. They are best suited for near distance viewing. The size of these screens will not be as large as outdoor screens because their purpose is to draw attention of people who are in near distance viewing range. They are much easier to install and maintain because of their light weight and easy to install procedures. Indoor LED screens are widely used at indoor concerts, railway stations, airports and shopping centres. The brightness of indoor screens can be adjusted so that they give the perfect clarity in any environment. Uses Modular digital signage can be used for any number of purposes. In exhibitions and conferences, they can be used as excellent wall backdrops for displaying product or company information. You can use LED digital screens for important presentations to delegates, peers or potential customers. Well thought of content and other product values are sure to impress them and express your strong intentions and establish your credentials. Event organisers of award ceremonies can make use of the screens to reveal nomination videos, reveal winners or display sponsor information. Whether it is a small or a large event you are planning, you can choose from differently sized screens that will fit your purpose and wont be too heavy on your purse. The scope for use of LED Screens in advertising and branding exercises is immense. Whether you want to publicise a sale or use it for promotional activity, both mobile and indoor screens can rise to the occasion and generate the kind of result you have dreamed of. For all your branding, screening or advertisement purposes of product launches or special offers and discounts, you can depend on LED display screens to make your statement. You can get creative and use them at weddings and other family events to really impress your guests and have great entertainment at the same time. Your special event deserves mobile LED Screen that will make it truly unique and memorable. About the Author:
Advertising Almost everyone who uses the internet knows WordPress as the best blogging platform. It is estimated that almost 65% of bloggers use WordPress for blogging. With such a large community, you will find thousands of plug-ins to use with your blog. Though Plug-ins provide added functionality for your blog, not all plug-ins are helpful. Here is a list of "Must have" WordPress plug-ins that will help you get the maximum benefits from your blog. Spam Karma Google Page rank has started a new race among website owners to spam blogs for a back link. If you have a high page rank for your blog you will end spending most of your time deleting the spam comments. Spam Karma is an anti spam plug-in to help you stop all automated blog spam without any effort. This helps you concentrate on your blog rather than on the spam comments. You can download Spam Karma from the site unknowngenius.com/blog/wordpress/spam-karma/ "All in one SEO" Pack All of us have heard about search engine optimization for getting organic traffic from the search engines. You must also be aware of the fact that getting your site optimized for a search engine is a tedious task. All in one SEO pack is an useful plug-in meant to help you minimize your efforts in search engine optimization. This plug-in allows you to post unique META tags, META description, keywords and page titles optimized for the search engines. It also allows you to post common META tags and descriptions if you are too lazy to update each page. WordPress Database Backup Do you spend a lot of time optimizing your blog, trying to get traffic and advertising your blog? What if you wake up one day and find your blog lost due to some server failure. Are you prepared for such disasters? If the answer is no, you must get WordPress database backup plug-in. This plug-in helps you in on demand backup of your WordPress database thus ensuring that you are prepared for any disasters on your blog. You can download this plug-in at ilfilosofo.com/blog/wp-db-backup WordPress Automatic Upgrade Have you always wanted to have the latest version of WordPress installed on your blog but always wondered if you could do it painlessly. The WordPress automatic upgrade plug-in allows is developed to allow easy & effortless upgrade of your WordPress installation to the latest version. This plug-in automatically backups your database, downloads the latest WordPress version, installs the files and reactivates your previously active plug-ins. This plug-in can be downloaded from techie-buzz.com/wordpress-plugins/wordpress-automatic-upgrade-plugin.html Permalink Migration Plugin Permalink is the permanent link to the blog post after it moves to the blog archives. Such links are indexed by the search engines and any changes to these links normally result in a "Page not found" error and hence loss of traffic. The Permalink migration plug-in automates the entire migration process. This plug-in is a must have if you are not satisfied with your blog’s Permalink structure and would like to change it. This plug-in can be downloaded from http://www.deanlee.cn/wordpress/permalinks-migration-plugin/ Google Sitemaps plug-in Sitemap is considered as an excellent navigation aid for your site visitor. XML sitemap are also known to provide search engines the necessary information for quick indexing of your blog. The Google sitemap plug-in automatically creates a XML sitemap for your blog and pings search engines informing them about the changes on your blog. This plug-in can be downloaded from arnebrachhold.de/2005/06/05/google-sitemaps-generator-v2-final Related Posts Visitors coming to your blog post through search engines usually leave the blog immediately after reading the post. The related posts plug-in helps you retain the visitor by providing him related posts and thus ensuring that the visitor has enough relevant content to stay on your blog. This plug-in can be downloaded from wasabi.pbwiki.com/Related%20Entries EasyTube Have you always wanted to have a video site but lacked the programming knowledge for it. The Easytube plug-in makes it easy for you to incorporate Youtube videos on your blog without a single line of any code. You can download this plug-in from ejump.co.uk/wordpress/easytube-plugin-for-wordpress/ GotBanners This plug-in provides an easy and convenient way of monetizing from your blog. It displays all banners on your blog in a random manner thus avoiding banner blindness for your regular visitors. About the Author: